White, John Albert. Transition to Global Rivalry: Alliance Diplomacy and quadruple Entente, 1895-1907. Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Germany had the opportunity to interfere in Congress because of its growing interests in Persia and the Middle East. [Rogers Platt Churchill, The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, Cedar Rapids, 1939, pp. 134-137]] Certainly, the treaty defined as one of its principles “as well as the sustainable establishment of the same advantage for the trade and industry of all other nations.” [[`Convention Signed on August 31, 1907, between Great Britain and Russia, Containing Arrangements on the Subject of Persia, Afghanistan, and Thibet` The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 1, No. 4, Supplement: Official Records. (Oct., 1907), pp. 398-406. s400]] It also established spheres of influence that could only harm German interests. In the end, only the emperor reacted, and his foolish attempt to create a German-American-Chinese understanding was to end in failure. This was based on Wilhelm`s fears of a “yellow risk” that Japan would dominate Asia, thus threatening the world.
[Luella J. Hall, `The Abortive German-American-Chinese Entente of 1907-8`, The Journal of Modern History, vol. 1, no. 2, (J., 1929, pp.219-235, p222]] In his telegrams to Nicholas, he says clearly: “They go all over Asia, carefully prepare their blows and against the white race in general!” [[28 December 1907, Grant, Letters, p. 239]] The shock of the defeat against Japan forced a total reassessment of Russian foreign policy, which had been found to have serious domestic, financial and military weaknesses. [Neilson, Tsar, P. 267]] Many in Russia were not ready to accept defeat:Savinsky”I also found it hurt that Russia, so great and powerful, was invited to enter into peace negotiations with Japan, just at a critical time when their efforts and resources were perhaps to the point of exhaustion. [[A. . .